Anorectal melanoma

J Surg Oncol. 2023 Sep;128(4):635-644. doi: 10.1002/jso.27381. Epub 2023 Jul 3.


Anorectal melanoma is an aggressive mucosal melanoma subtype with a poor prognosis. Although recent advancements have been seen for cutaneous melanoma, the optimal treatment paradigm for management of anorectal melanoma is evolving. In this review, we highlight differences in the pathogenesis of mucosal versus cutaneous melanoma, new concepts of staging for mucosal melanoma, updates to surgical management of anorectal melanoma, and current data for adjuvant radiation and systemic therapy in this unique patient population.

Keywords: adjuvant; anorectal melanoma; immunotherapy; local excision; melanoma; mucosal melanoma; proctectomy; radiotherapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anus Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Melanoma* / pathology
  • Rectal Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Skin Neoplasms* / therapy

Supplementary concepts

  • Melanoma, Cutaneous Malignant