The Pregnant Smoker Stigma Scale - Self Stigma (P3S-SS): development and validation in pregnant smoking women in France

Women Health. 2023 Aug 9;63(7):507-517. doi: 10.1080/03630242.2023.2228929. Epub 2023 Jul 3.


Pregnancy smoking self-stigma may be associated with mental health and smoking cessation. This study aims to validate the Pregnant Smoker Stigma Scale - Self-Stigma (P3S-SS) assessing perceived and internalized stigma. Between May 2021 and May 2022, French pregnant smokers recruited online (n = 143) took the P3S-SS and other scales assessing depressive symptoms (EPDS), social inclusion (SIS), dissimulation, dependence (CDS-5), cessation self-efficacy (SEQ), and intention. The two versions of the scale include four dimensions: derogatory cognitions ("People think/I feel I am selfish"), negative emotions and behaviors ("People make me feel/smoking makes me feel guilty"), personal distress ("People/I feel sorry for me/myself"), and information provision ("People tell me/I think about the risks of smoking"). Confirmatory factor analyses and multiple regressions have been computed. Model fit was good for perceived stigma and internalized stigma (X2/df = 3.06, RMSEA = .124, AGFI = .982, SRMR = .068, CFI = .986, NNFI = .985; X2/df = 3.31, RMSEA = .14, AGFI = .977, SRMR = .087, CFI = .981, NNFI = .979). Controlling for dependence, cessation intention was positively predicted by perceived and internalized personal distress and negatively predicted by perceived negative emotions and behaviors (Adj R2 = .143, F(8,115) = 3.567, p = .001). Controlling for dependence, dissimulation was positively predicted by internalized negative cognitions and perceived personal distress and negatively predicted by internalized personal distress (Adj R2 = .19, F(9,98) = 3.785, p = .000). The P3S-SS opens up exciting avenues for further research. Stigma does not motivate women to stop smoking but increases distress and dissimulation.

Keywords: Pregnancy smoking; self-stigma; smoking stigma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnant Women / psychology
  • Smokers*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking Cessation*
  • Social Stigma