Mortality analyses were carried out for 278 male hourly workers who were employed for at least 10 years at a gray iron foundry and who died between January 1, 1970 and December 31, 1981. Statistically significant excess proportional mortality due to non-malignant respiratory disease (SPMR = 177), lung cancer (SPMR = 148), and leukemia (SPMR = 284) was found among the 221 white males. Among nonwhite males there was a significant excess in proportional mortality due to circulatory diseases (SPMR = 143). White males in the Finishing classification experienced a significant excess of proportional mortality due to nonmalignant respiratory disease (SPMR = 279) and lung cancer (SPMR = 179). White males in the Core Room classification experienced an excess of proportional mortality due to nonmalignant respiratory disease (SPMR = 321). Case-control studies demonstrated a significant association between nonmalignant respiratory disease and the Finishing classification after controlling for the effects of age, prior occupations in coal mining or foundries, and smoking. A positive but nonsignificant association between lung cancer and Finishing was also found after controlling for age, prior work history, and smoking in case control studies.