Candida auris Genetics and Emergence

Annu Rev Microbiol. 2023 Sep 15:77:583-602. doi: 10.1146/annurev-micro-032521-015858. Epub 2023 Jul 5.


Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen that presents a serious threat to global human health. Since the first reported case in 2009 in Japan, C. auris infections have been reported in more than 40 countries, with mortality rates between 30% and 60%. In addition, C. auris has the potential to cause outbreaks in health care settings, especially in nursing homes for elderly patients, owing to its efficient transmission via skin-to-skin contact. Most importantly, C. auris is the first fungal pathogen to show pronounced and sometimes untreatable clinical drug resistance to all known antifungal classes, including azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins. In this review, we explore the causes of the rapid spread of C. auris. We also highlight its genome organization and drug resistance mechanisms and propose future research directions that should be undertaken to curb the spread of this multidrug-resistant pathogen.

Keywords: MAP kinase signaling; amphotericin B; antifungal drug resistance; azoles; cell wall; echinocandin.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Amphotericin B
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Candida auris*
  • Candida* / genetics
  • Echinocandins
  • Humans


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Echinocandins
  • Amphotericin B

Supplementary concepts

  • Candida auris infection