Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18 and maternal uniparental disomy 18 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues and a favorable fetal outcome

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2023 Jul;62(4):606-610. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2023.05.012.

Abstract

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18 and maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 18 in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome.

Case report: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, and the result was 47,XY,+18 [4]/46,XY [25] in cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 65% mosaicism for trisomy 18. Prenatal ultrasound was normal. She consulted our hospital and underwent repeat amniocentesis at 22 weeks of gestation, and the result revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+18 [9]/46,XY [12] in cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous aCGH on uncultured amniocytes revealed arr 18p11.32q23 × 2.4 (log2 ratio = 0.3) consistent with 40% mosaicism for trisomy 18. Parental karyotypes were normal. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) analysis on the DNA extracted from parental bloods and uncultured amniocytes confirmed maternal uniparental heterodisomy of chromosome 18. At 26 weeks of gestation, she underwent the third amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+18 [7]/46,XY [19] in cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous aCGH on uncultured amniocytes revealed arr 18p11.32q23 × 2.4 (log2 ratio = 0.27) consistent with 40% mosaicism for trisomy 18. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 38% (38/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18. The woman was advised to continue the pregnancy, and a 2620-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered at 40 weeks of gestation. At birth, the karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 47,XY,+18 [14]/46,XY [26], 47,XY,+18 [9]/46,XY [31] and 47,XY,+18 (40/40 cells), respectively. When follow-up at age 2½ months, the neonate was phenotypically normal. The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+18 [28]/46,XY [12], and interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells detected 6.4% (7/93 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18, compared with 0% (0/100 cells) in the normal control. When follow-up at age seven months, the neonate was normal in development, and the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+18 [18]/46,XY [22].

Conclusions: Mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis can be associated with cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues, UPD 18 and a favorable fetal outcome. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18 should alert the possibility of UPD 18 and include UPD testing.

Keywords: Amniocentesis; Mosaic trisomy 18; Mosaicism; Uniparental disomy 18.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Amniocentesis*
  • Comparative Genomic Hybridization
  • Female
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Karyotype
  • Karyotyping
  • Male
  • Mosaicism
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Trisomy / diagnosis
  • Trisomy / genetics
  • Trisomy 18 Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Trisomy 18 Syndrome / genetics
  • Uniparental Disomy* / diagnosis
  • Uniparental Disomy* / genetics