Concurrence of hyperinsulinemia and hyperuricemia significantly augmented all-cause mortality

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2023 Sep;33(9):1725-1732. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2023.05.023. Epub 2023 May 24.


Background and aims: Hyperinsulinemia and hyperuricemia are known to increase the risk of mortality due to certain complications, such as Type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, despite their common comorbidities, their combined effect has not been evaluated. The study's aim was to evaluate the combine effect of hyperinsulinemia and hyperuricemia on all-cause mortality.

Methods and results: NHANES datasets (cycles 2003-2018) were examined. Differences between groups were evaluated using Rao-Scott Chi-square and General Linear Model for categorical and continuous data, respectively. Hazard Ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox regression with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mortality rate between the control group (2.3 ± 0.2%), the hyperinsulinemia only group (3.1 ± 0.3%), the hyperuricemia only group (4.0 ± 0.8%), and both conditions (5.1 ± 0.8%). Individually, when compared to the control group, there was a significant increase in mortality risk for hyperinsulinemia (HR: 1.50, 95%CI: 1.12-2.01, p = 0.007) and hyperuricemia (HR: 1.80, 95%CI:1.18-2.75, p = 0.006). However, when both conditions were present, there appeared an additive effect in the mortality risk (HR: 2.32, 95%CI: 1.66-3.25, p < 0.001). When stratified by BMI class, only normal weight participants presented with a significant risk (HR: 7.00, 95%CI: 2.50-20.30, p < 0.001). Also, when stratified by age, only participants older than 40 years presented a risk (HR: 2.22, 95%CI: 1.56-3.16, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Alone, hyperuricemia and hyperinsulinemia significantly increased the mortality rate; however, the combined presence of both pathologies was associated with a significantly augmented mortality rate. Normal weight participant or that were >40 years old had a greater risk for mortality.

Keywords: Insulin; Metabolic disorders; Metabolic syndrome; NHANES; Obesity; Serum uric acid; Survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular Diseases*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Humans
  • Hyperinsulinism* / diagnosis
  • Hyperuricemia* / complications
  • Hyperuricemia* / diagnosis
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Risk Factors