Organokines in COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Cells. 2023 May 9;12(10):1349. doi: 10.3390/cells12101349.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 that induces a generalized inflammatory state. Organokines (adipokines, osteokines, myokines, hepatokines, and cardiokines) can produce beneficial or harmful effects in this condition. This study aimed to systematically review the role of organokines on COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and 37 studies were selected, comprising more than 2700 individuals infected with the virus. Among COVID-19 patients, organokines have been associated with endothelial dysfunction and multiple organ failure due to augmented cytokines and increased SARS-CoV-2 viremia. Changes in the pattern of organokines secretion can directly or indirectly contribute to aggravating the infection, promoting immune response alterations, and predicting the disease progression. These molecules have the potential to be used as adjuvant biomarkers to predict the severity of the illness and severe outcomes.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; adipokines; cardiokines; hepatokines; immune system; myokines; organokines; osteokines; pandemic; viral infection.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • SARS-CoV-2

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.