Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis is a common problem leading to dialysis access dysfunction. The conventional balloon (CB) is the most commonly used device during angioplasty but suffers from poor durability of results due to neointimal hyperplasia-mediated recurrence. The drug-coated balloon (DCB) is an adjunct to balloon angioplasty that reduces neointimal hyperplasia, thereby improving post-angioplasty patency. Despite the heterogeneity of DCB clinical trials to date, the evidence suggests that DCBs of different brands are not necessarily equal, and that patient selection, adequate lesion preparation and proper DCB procedural technique are important to realize the benefit of DCB angioplasty.
Keywords: Arteriovenous fistula; Drug-coated balloon; Drug-eluting balloon; Haemodialysis; Paclitaxel-coated balloon; Stenosis.
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