The remarkable capacity of immunotherapies to induce durable regression in some patients with metastatic cancer relies heavily on T cell recognition of tumor-presented antigens. As checkpoint-blockade therapy has limited efficacy, tumor antigens have the potential to be exploited for complementary treatments, many of which are already in clinical trials. The surge of interest in this topic has led to the expansion of the tumor antigen landscape with the emergence of new antigen categories. Nonetheless, how different antigens compare in their ability to elicit efficient and safe clinical responses remains largely unknown. Here, we review known cancer peptide antigens, their attributes and the relevant clinical data and discuss future directions.
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