Cardiovascular manifestations are common in patients suffering axial spondyloarthritis and can result in substantial morbidity and disease burden. To give an overview of this important aspect of axial spondyloarthritis, we conducted a systematic literature search of all articles published between January 2000 and 25 May 2023 on cardiovascular manifestations. Using PubMed and SCOPUS, 123 out of 6792 articles were identified and included in this review. Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis seems to be underrepresented in studies; thus, more evidence for ankylosing spondylitis exists. All in all, we found some traditional risk factors that led to higher cardiovascular disease burden or major cardiovascular events. These specific risk factors seem to be more aggressive in patients with spondyloarthropathies and have a strong connection to high or long-standing disease activity. Since disease activity is a major driver of morbidity, diagnostic, therapeutic, and lifestyle interventions are crucial for better outcomes. Key Points • Several studies on axial spondyloarthritis and associated cardiovascular diseases have been conducted in the last few years addressing risk stratification of these patients including artificial intelligence. • Recent data suggest distinct manifestations of cardiovascular disease entities among men and women which the treating physician needs to be aware of. • Rheumatologists need to screen axial spondyloarthritis patients for emerging cardiovascular disease and should aim at reducing traditional risk factors like hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and smoking as well as disease activity.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Axial spondyloarthritis; Heart disease; Hyperlipidemia; Vascular disease.
© 2023. International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR).