Trigger-Associated Clinical Implications and Outcomes in Takotsubo Syndrome: Results From the Multicenter GEIST Registry

J Am Heart Assoc. 2023 Jul 18;12(14):e028511. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.122.028511. Epub 2023 Jul 8.


Background Takotsubo syndrome is usually triggered by a stressful event. The type of trigger seems to influence the outcome and should therefore be considered separately. Methods and Results Patients included in the GEIST (German-Italian-Spanish Takotsubo) registry were categorized according to physical trigger (PT), emotional trigger (ET), and no trigger (NT) of Takotsubo syndrome. Clinical characteristics as well as outcome predictors were analyzed. Overall, 2482 patients were included. ET was detected in 910 patients (36.7%), PT in 885 patients (34.4%), and NT was observed in 717 patients (28.9%). Compared with patients with PT or NT, patients with ET were younger, less frequently men, and had a lower prevalence of comorbidities. Adverse in-hospital events (NT: 18.8% versus PT: 27.1% versus ET: 12.1%, P<0.001) and long-term mortality rates (NT: 14.4% versus PT: 21.6% versus ET: 8.5%, P<0.001) were significantly lower in patients with ET. Increasing age (P<0.001), male sex (P=0.007), diabetes (P<0.001), malignancy (P=0.002), and a neurological disorder (P<0.001) were associated with a higher risk of long-term mortality, while chest pain (P=0.035) and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (P=0.027) were confirmed as independent predictors for a lower risk of long-term mortality. Conclusions Patients with ET have better clinical conditions and a lower mortality rate. Increasing age, male sex, malignancy, a neurological disorder, chest pain, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, and diabetes were confirmed as predictors of long-term mortality.

Keywords: broken heart syndrome; outcome; stress‐induced cardiomyopathy; takotsubo syndrome.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Chest Pain
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms* / complications
  • Nervous System Diseases*
  • Registries
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy* / complications
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy* / epidemiology
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy* / therapy


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists