The precise cytoarchitectural localization of taste-elicited cortical responses in the rat was studied using a combination of anatomical and physiological techniques. Multi-unit responses to tongue tactile, thermal and gustatory stimuli were recorded along 97 electrode penetrations positioned parallel to the lateral convexity of the brain and marking lesions were placed at the sites of transitions in these functional properties. Lesions made at sites that received different sensory inputs were consistently located within different cytoarchitectural subdivisions. In this manner, taste cortex in the rat was localized to the agranular insular cytoarchitectural region, in contrast to its traditional assignation to granular insular cortex. Instead, tongue temperature was found to be represented in the cortical area previously termed gustatory, i.e., in ventral granular cortex where layer IV attenuates.