Echocardiographic Evaluation of Diastolic Function in Special Populations

Am J Cardiol. 2023 Sep 1:202:131-143. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2023.05.032. Epub 2023 Jul 8.


Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction results from a combination of impaired relaxation, reduced restoring forces, and increased chamber stiffness. Noninvasive assessment of diastology uses a multiparametric approach involving surrogate markers of increased filling pressures, which include mitral inflow, septal and lateral annular velocities, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index. However, these parameters must be used cautiously. This is because the traditional algorithms for evaluating diastolic function and estimation of LV filling pressures (LVFPs), as recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging 2016 guidelines, do not apply to unique patients with underlying cardiomyopathies, significant valvular disease, conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias, LV assist devices, and heart transplants, which alter the relation between the conventional indexes of diastolic function and LVFP. The purpose of this review is to provide solutions for evaluating LVFP through illustrative examples of these special populations, incorporating supplemental Doppler indexes, such as isovolumic relaxation time, mitral deceleration time, and pulmonary venous flow analysis, as needed to formulate a more comprehensive approach.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diastole
  • Echocardiography
  • Echocardiography, Doppler*
  • Humans
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left*
  • Ventricular Function, Left