The Effects of the Marination Process with Different Vinegar Varieties on Various Quality Criteria and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amine Formation in Beef Steak

Foods. 2022 Oct 18;11(20):3251. doi: 10.3390/foods11203251.


Herein, the effect of the dipping (static) marination process (at 4 °C for 2 h) with different types of vinegar (balsamic, pomegranate, apple, and grape) on various quality properties, including texture and protein profile of beef steaks and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in beef steaks cooked on a hot plate (at 200 °C for 24 min), were determined. The results showed that 3.12-4.13% of the marinate liquids were absorbed by beef steak as a result of the marination process. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the marinated and cooked beef steaks in terms of water content, cooking loss, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness. However, significant differences were detected in terms of pH value and color values (L*, a*, and b*) (p < 0.01), and springiness, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoxaline (MeIQx) and total HAA content (p < 0.05). The marination with pomegranate vinegar resulted in the formation of darker steak, while a lighter one was obtained when apple vinegar was used in the marination. The use of balsamic and grape vinegar in the marination process decreased the springiness value compared to the control group. The myofibrillar proteins of beef steaks marinated with different types of vinegar generally showed a similar sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profile. However, some differences were observed in the band density of some proteins depending on the trial and the type of marination. In this study, of the nine examined HAAs, only two (2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoline (IQ) and MeIQx) could be detected and quantified. IQ was detected only in the control group steak (up to 0.51 ng/g), while MeIQx was detected in all treatment groups (up to 2.22 ng/g). The total HAA content varied between 0.59-2.22 ng/g. It was determined that the marination process with different vinegar types had different effects on the total HAA content of the steaks. Using balsamic and apple vinegar in the marination process decreased the total HAA content compared to the control group, but this decrease was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). On the other hand, using grape and pomegranate vinegar in the marination process increased the total HAA content, but this increase was only significant (p < 0.05) in the marination with pomegranate vinegar.

Keywords: SDS-PAGE; heterocyclic aromatic amines; marination; texture; vinegar.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.