Antimicrobial hydrogel dressings have received extensive attention for their wide and promising applications in preventing infections associated with wound healing. However, the development of versatile antibacterial hydrogels inevitably leads to complex structures, which restricts their applications. In this work, a multifunctional antibacterial hydrogel based on a reversible diolborate bond crosslinked network was prepared via the interactions between the zwitterionic glycopolymer poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-co-(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-co-(2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylamide)] (PMDL) and borax in conjunction with a simple mixing of Ag NPs within 10 s. The obtained PMDL-12%/borax/Ag NP hydrogel displays a rapid self-healing ability and excellent injectability, as well as good adhesiveness to biological tissues and surfaces of various materials. Moreover, the hydrogels exhibit efficient antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which could prevent bacterial infections in wound care. The multifunctional hydrogel also shows good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Importantly, in vivo wound healing evaluation of a mouse full-thickness skin defect model confirms that the hydrogel effectively accelerates cutaneous regeneration and wound healing by regulating inflammation and promoting collagen deposition. This multifunctional wound dressing hydrogel prepared using a facile strategy has promising application in biomedical areas.