Caenorhabditis elegans morphogenesis: the role of the cytoskeleton in elongation of the embryo

Dev Biol. 1986 Sep;117(1):156-73. doi: 10.1016/0012-1606(86)90358-1.


During development Caenorhabditis elegans changes from an embryo that is relatively spherical in shape to a long thin worm. This paper provides evidence that the elongation of the body is caused by the outermost layer of embryonic cells, the hypodermis, squeezing the embryo circumferentially. The hypodermal cells surround the embryo and are linked together by cellular junctions. Numerous circumferentially oriented bundles of microfilaments are present at the outer surfaces of the hypodermal cells as the embryo elongates. Elongation is associated with an apparent pressure on the internal cells of the embryo, and cytochalasin D reversibly inhibits both elongation and the increase in pressure. Circumferentially oriented microtubules also are associated with the outer membranes of the hypodermal cells during elongation. Experiments with the microtubule inhibitors colcemid, griseofulvin, and nocodazole suggest that the microtubules function to distribute across the membrane stresses resulting from microfilament contraction, such that the embryo decreases in circumference uniformly during elongation. While the cytoskeletal organization of the hypodermal cells appears to determine the shape of the embryo during elongation, an extracellular cuticle appears to maintain the body shape after elongation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Actin Cytoskeleton / physiology
  • Actins / physiology
  • Animals
  • Caenorhabditis / cytology
  • Caenorhabditis / embryology
  • Caenorhabditis / ultrastructure*
  • Cytochalasin D
  • Cytochalasins / pharmacology
  • Cytoskeleton / physiology*
  • Extracellular Matrix / physiology
  • Microtubules / drug effects
  • Microtubules / physiology
  • Morphogenesis
  • Tubulin / physiology


  • Actins
  • Cytochalasins
  • Tubulin
  • Cytochalasin D