The authors have presented a description and review of the Capgras Syndrome along with data from a case series of 25 patients with misidentification syndromes (24 Capgras Syndrome, 1 Fregoli Syndrome). From this data, the following conclusions can be drawn: The Capgras Syndrome is not a rare condition, but an uncommon one which is probably frequently overlooked. The misidentification syndrome is not important as a diagnostic entity. It appears in a variety of psychiatric and neurologic conditions. Capgras Syndrome appears to have a possible neurological link in clinicopathological studies; it has been correlated with lesions which produce prosopagnosia. Capgras Syndrome seems to occur more frequently in women, blacks and schizophrenics. Capgras Syndrome had a high (15%) incidence in our adult inpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia. From this figure we estimate a 0.12% prevalence of Capgras Syndrome in the general population. Capgras Syndrome is often associated with medical illness and when found should signal the alert clinician to investigate for occult organic conditions.