Interleukin 24: Signal Transduction Pathways

Cancers (Basel). 2023 Jun 27;15(13):3365. doi: 10.3390/cancers15133365.


Interleukin 24 is a member of the IL-10 family with crucial roles in antitumor, wound healing responses, host defense, immune regulation, and inflammation. Interleukin 24 is produced by both immune and nonimmune cells. Its canonical pathway relies on recognition and interaction with specific Interleukin 20 receptors in the plasma membrane and subsequent cytoplasmic Janus protein tyrosine kinases (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of the transcription (STAT) activation. The identification of noncanonical JAK/STAT-independent signaling pathways downstream of IL-24 relies on the interaction of IL-24 with protein kinase R in the cytosol, respiratory chain proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and chaperones such as Sigma 1 Receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum. Numerous studies have shown that enhancing or inhibiting the expression of Interleukin 24 has a therapeutic effect in animal models and clinical trials in different pathologies. Successful drug targeting will require a deeper understanding of the downstream signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathway triggered by IL-24.

Keywords: BiP/GRP78; Grim 19; JAK/STAT; PERK; PKA; PKR; ROS; UTR; ceramide; eIF2 alpha; eIF4F complex; interleukin 10; interleukin 20; interleukin 24; p38 MAPK; sigma 1 receptor; translation regulation; tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

Publication types

  • Review