Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Various Extracts of Fibre Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivated in Lithuania

Molecules. 2023 Jun 22;28(13):4928. doi: 10.3390/molecules28134928.


The phytochemistry of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L., cv. Futura 75 and Felina 32) cultivated in Lithuania was investigated. The soil characteristics (conductivity, pH and major elements) of the cultivation field were determined. The chemical composition of hemp extracts and essential oils (EOs) from different plant parts was determined by the HPLC/DAD/TOF and GC/MS techniques. Among the major constituents, β-caryophyllene (≤46.64%) and its oxide (≤14.53%), α-pinene (≤20.25%) or α-humulene (≤11.48) were determined in EOs. Cannabidiol (CBD) was a predominant compound (≤64.56%) among the volatile constituents of the methanolic extracts of hemp leaves and inflorescences. Appreciable quantities of 2-monolinolein (11.31%), methyl eicosatetraenoate (9.70%) and γ-sitosterol (8.99%) were detected in hemp seed extracts. The octadecenyl ester of hexadecenoic acid (≤31.27%), friedelan-3-one (≤21.49%), dihydrobenzofuran (≤17.07%) and γ-sitosterol (14.03%) were major constituents of the methanolic extracts of hemp roots, collected during various growth stages. The CBD quantity was the highest in hemp flower extracts in pentane (32.73%). The amounts of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) were up to 24.21% in hemp leaf extracts. The total content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) isomers was the highest in hemp flower pentane extracts (≤22.43%). The total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 187.9 to 924.7 (average means, mg/L of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)) in aqueous unshelled hemp seed and flower extracts, respectively. The TPC was determined to be up to 321.0 (mg/L GAE) in root extracts. The antioxidant activity (AA) of hemp extracts and Eos was tested by the spectrophotometric DPPH scavenging activity method. The highest AA was recorded for hemp leaf EOs (from 15.034 to 35.036 mmol/L, TROLOX equivalent). In the case of roots, the highest AA (1.556 mmol/L, TROLOX) was found in the extracts of roots collected at the seed maturation stage. The electrochemical (cyclic and square wave voltammetry) assays correlated with the TPC. The hydrogen-peroxide-scavenging activity of extracts was independent of the TPC.

Keywords: Cannabaceae; Cannabis sativa L. ssp. sativa; amperometry; antioxidant; diode array detector; essential oils; extracts; gas chromatography; high-performance liquid chromatography; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; mass spectrometry; prooxidant activity; time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Cannabidiol*
  • Cannabis* / chemistry
  • Lithuania
  • Pentanes
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology


  • Antioxidants
  • pentane
  • Pentanes
  • Phytochemicals
  • Cannabidiol
  • Plant Extracts

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.