Position Statement: Exercise Guidelines for Osteoporosis Management and Fall Prevention in Osteoporosis Patients

J Bone Metab. 2023 May;30(2):149-165. doi: 10.11005/jbm.2023.30.2.149. Epub 2023 May 31.


Background: The effectiveness of exercise for improving osteoporosis and fall prevention in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteopenia has not been fully summarized. The Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Korean Society of Exercise Physiology has developed exercise guidelines for patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia and provide evidence-based recommendations.

Methods: A systematic review identified randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing the effect of resistance, impact, balance, aerobic training, and physical activity in osteoporosis and osteopenia on bone quality, physical performance, quality of life, and fall prevention. PubMed, Embase, KoreaMed, and RISS were searched from January 2000 to August 2022. Ten key questions were established to review the evidence and formulate recommendations.

Results: The 50 RCTs reported that even with osteoporosis and osteopenia, resistance and impact training consistently maximized bone strength, improved body strength and balance, and eventually reduced fall incidences. Resistance exercise combining 3 to 10 types of free weight and mechanical exercise of major muscle groups performed with an intensity of 50% to 85% 1-repetition maximum, 5 to 12 repetitions/set, 2 to 3 days/week, for 3 to 12 months is recommended. Impact exercises such as jumping chin-ups with drop landings and jump rope performed 50 jumps/session for at least 6 months with 3 or more days/week are recommended.

Conclusions: A multi-component exercise mainly comprised of resistance and impact exercise seems to be an effective strategy to attenuate the risk factors of osteoporosis and osteopenia. The integration of exercise guidelines and individualized exercise plans has significant potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of osteoporosis.

Keywords: Accidental falls; Bone density; Exercise; Osteoporosis.