Chapter 3: Management of kidney injury caused by cancer drug therapy, from clinical practice guidelines for the management of kidney injury during anticancer drug therapy 2022

Int J Clin Oncol. 2023 Oct;28(10):1315-1332. doi: 10.1007/s10147-023-02382-2. Epub 2023 Jul 16.


Cisplatin should be administered with diuretics and Magnesium supplementation under adequate hydration to avoid renal impairment. Patients should be evaluated for eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) during the treatment with pemetrexed, as kidney injury has been reported. Pemetrexed should be administered with caution in patients with a CCr (creatinine clearance) < 45 mL/min. Mesna is used to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis in patients receiving ifosfamide. Febuxostat is effective in avoiding hyperuricemia induced by TLS (tumor lysis syndrome). Preventative rasburicase is recommended in high-risk cases of TLS. Thrombotic microangiopathy could be triggered by anticancer drugs and there is no evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange therapy. When proteinuria occurs during treatment with anti-angiogenic agents or multi-kinase inhibitors, dose reductions or interruptions based on grading should be considered. Grade 3 proteinuria and renal dysfunction require urgent intervention, including drug interruption or withdrawal, and referral to a nephrologist should be considered. The first-line drugs used for blood pressure elevation due to anti-angiogenic agents are ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers). The protein binding of drugs and their pharmacokinetics are considerably altered in patients with hypoalbuminemia. The clearance of rituximab is increased in patients with proteinuria, and the correlation with urinary IgG suggests similar pharmacokinetic changes when using other antibody drugs. AIN (acute interstitial nephritis) is the most common cause of ICI (immune checkpoint inhibitor)-related kidney injury that is often treated with steroids. The need for renal biopsy in patients with kidney injury that occurs during treatment with ICI remains controversial.

Keywords: Cisplatin; Hypertension; Hyperuricemia; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Multi-kinase inhibitors; Proteinuria.