Cost and Clinical Outcomes Evaluation Between the Endoaortic Balloon and External Aortic Clamp in Cardiac Surgery

Innovations (Phila). 2023 Jul-Aug;18(4):338-345. doi: 10.1177/15569845231185311. Epub 2023 Jul 17.


Objective: Endoaortic balloon occlusion facilitates cardioplegic arrest during minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Studies have shown endoclamping to be as safe as traditional aortic clamping. We compared outcomes and hospital costs of endoclamping versus external aortic occlusion in a large administrative database.

Methods: There were 52,882 adults undergoing eligible cardiac surgery (October 2015 to March 2020) identified in the Premier Healthcare Database. Endoclamp procedures (n = 419) were 1:3 propensity score matched to similar procedures using external aortic occlusion (n = 1,244). Generalized linear modeling measured differences in in-hospital complications (major adverse renal and cardiac events, including mortality, new-onset atrial fibrillation, acute kidney injury [AKI], myocardial infarction [MI], postcardiotomy syndrome, stroke/transient ischemic attack [TIA], and aortic dissection) and length of stay (LOS).

Results: The mean age was 63 years, and 53% were male (n = 882). The majority (93%, n = 1,543) were mitral valve procedures, and 17% of procedures (n = 285) were robot-assisted. Total hospitalization costs were not statistically significantly different between the 2 groups ($52,158 vs $49,839, P = 0.06). The median LOS was significantly shorter in the endoclamp group (incident rate ratio = 0.87, P < 0.001). Mortality, atrial fibrillation, AKI, and stroke/TIA were similar between the 2 groups. MI and postcardiotomy syndrome were lower in the endoclamp group (odds ratio [OR] = 0.14, P = 0.006, and OR = 0.27, P = 0.005). There were no aortic dissections in the endoclamp group.

Conclusions: Aortic endoclamping in MIS was associated with similar costs, shorter LOS, no dissections, and comparably low mortality and stroke rates when compared with external clamping in this hospital billing dataset. These results demonstrate the clinical safety and efficacy of endoaortic balloon clamping in a real-world setting. Further studies are warranted.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass adjunct; minimally invasive; mitral valve.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / etiology
  • Adult
  • Atrial Fibrillation*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures* / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient* / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Myocardial Infarction*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stroke* / epidemiology
  • Stroke* / etiology
  • Treatment Outcome