Regional differences in the degree of glycaemic diabetes control in Spain and associated factors. IBERICAN study

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed). 2023 Aug-Sep;70(7):448-458. doi: 10.1016/j.endien.2023.07.001. Epub 2023 Jul 17.


Background and objective: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is high, it is increasing and its degree of control seems to be improvable with important social and health consequences. The objective of this study is to determine the regional differences in the degree of glycaemic control of T2D in Spain and its associated factors.

Material and methods: Cross-sectional, multicentre, observational study in patients with T2D between 18 and 85 years of age selected by consecutive sampling between 2014 and 2018. The population was divided into four regions: north, centre, Mediterranean and south-east. The main variable was the value of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Sociodemographic and clinical variables, presence or absence of other risk factors and treatment were recorded.

Results: A total of 1587 patients with T2D were analysed, with a mean age of 65.93 years (standard deviation [SD] 10.14); 54.5% were men; the mean duration of T2D was 8.63 years (SD 6.64) and the mean HbA1c value was 7.05%. Of the total, 59.8% had an HbA1c value ≤ 7% (north 59.5%, centre 59.5%, Mediterranean 60.6% and south-east 59.8%; P=.99). The factors for poor control were: in the north, duration of T2D and being sedentary; in the centre, duration of T2D and having a low income; in the Mediterranean, duration of T2D; and in the south-east, duration of T2D and having a low level of education or income. Overall, 76.2% of the subjects had hypertension, 75.1% dyslipidaemia, and 51.7% obesity, with significant differences between regions only being observed in the case of dyslipidaemia (P<.001).

Conclusions: No differences were observed in the degree of diabetes control in the different regions, with the percentage of patients needing intensification in their control being high in all of them. The factors associated with poor control were the duration of the disease, a low level of education or income, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Keywords: Atención primaria de salud; Control glucémico; Diabetes mellitus tipo 2; Glycaemic control; Primary health care; Type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / therapy
  • Dyslipidemias*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Glycemic Control
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Spain / epidemiology


  • Glycated Hemoglobin