State-of-the-art document on optimal contemporary management of cardiomyopathies

Eur J Heart Fail. 2023 Nov;25(11):1899-1922. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.2979. Epub 2023 Sep 24.


Cardiomyopathies represent significant contributors to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Over the past decades, a progress has occurred in characterization of the genetic background and major pathophysiological mechanisms, which has been incorporated into a more nuanced diagnostic approach and risk stratification. Furthermore, medications targeting core disease processes and/or their downstream adverse effects have been introduced for several cardiomyopathies. Combined with standard care and prevention of sudden cardiac death, these novel and emerging targeted therapies offer a possibility of improving the outcomes in several cardiomyopathies. Therefore, the aim of this document is to summarize practical approaches to the treatment of cardiomyopathies, which includes the evidence-based novel therapeutic concepts and established principles of care, tailored to the individual patient aetiology and clinical presentation of the cardiomyopathy. The scope of the document encompasses contemporary treatment of dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. It was based on an expert consensus reached at the Heart Failure Association online Workshop, held on 18 March 2021.

Keywords: Aetiology; Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; Dilated cardiomyopathy; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Management; Mortality; Restrictive cardiomyopathy; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiomyopathies* / diagnosis
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac / etiology
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac / prevention & control
  • Disease Progression
  • Heart Failure* / complications
  • Humans