Norovirus-associated neurological manifestations: summarizing the evidence

J Neurovirol. 2023 Aug;29(4):492-506. doi: 10.1007/s13365-023-01152-0. Epub 2023 Jul 21.


Norovirus, a positive-stranded RNA virus, is one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis among all age groups worldwide. The neurological manifestations of norovirus are underrecognized, but several wide-spectrum neurological manifestations have been reported among infected individuals in the last few years. Our objective was to summarize the features of norovirus-associated neurological disorders based on the available literature. We used the existing PRISMA consensus statement. Data were collected from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases up to Jan 30, 2023, using pre-specified searching strategies. Twenty-one articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Among these, seven hundred and seventy-four patients with norovirus-associated neurological manifestations were reported. Most cases were seizure episodes, infection-induced encephalopathy, and immune-driven disorders. However, only a few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of norovirus-related neurological complications. The pathogenesis of these manifestations may be mediated by either neurotropism or aberrant immune-mediated injury, or both, depending on the affected system. Our review could help clinicians to recognize these neurological manifestations better and earlier while deepening the understanding of the pathogenesis of this viral infection.

Keywords: Clinical manifestations; Norovirus; Norovirus-associated neurological disorders; Seizures.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain Diseases* / complications
  • Caliciviridae Infections* / complications
  • Gastroenteritis* / complications
  • Humans
  • Norovirus* / genetics
  • Seizures / complications