Three-year outcomes of A Randomized Multicentre Trial Comparing Revascularization and Optimal Medical Therapy for Chronic Total Coronary Occlusions (EuroCTO)

EuroIntervention. 2023 Sep 18;19(7):571-579. doi: 10.4244/EIJ-D-23-00312.


Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total coronary occlusions (CTO) improves clinical symptoms and quality of life. The longer-term safety of PCI compared to optimal medical therapy (OMT) remains uncertain.

Aims: We sought to evaluate the long-term safety of PCI for CTO in a randomised trial as compared to OMT.

Methods: A total of 396 patients with a symptomatic CTO were enrolled into a randomised, multicentre clinical trial comparing PCI and OMT. Half of the patients had a single CTO; the others had multivessel disease. Non-CTO lesions were treated prior to randomisation (2:1 ratio). During follow-up, crossover from OMT to PCI occurred in 7.3% (1 year) and 17.5% (3 years) of patients.

Results: At 3 years, the incidence of cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction was not significantly different between the groups (OMT 3.7% vs PCI 6.2%; p=0.29). By per-protocol analysis, the difference remained non-significant (OMT 5.7% vs PCI 4.7%; p=0.67). Overall, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were more frequent with OMT (OMT 21.2% vs PCI 11.2%), largely because of ischaemia-driven revascularisation. The rates of stroke or hospitalisation for bleeding were not different between the groups.

Conclusions: At 3 years there was no difference in the rate of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction between PCI or OMT among patients with a remaining single coronary CTO. The MACE rate was higher in the OMT group due largely to ischaemia-driven revascularisation. CTO PCI appears to be a safe option for patients with a single remaining significant coronary CTO. NCT01760083.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Disease
  • Coronary Occlusion* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Occlusion* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction* / therapy
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / adverse effects
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / methods
  • Quality of Life
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome

Associated data