Images: Irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder in transgender individuals

J Clin Sleep Med. 2023 Nov 1;19(11):1981-1984. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.10700.


Growing evidence suggests that transgender individuals face a significant health disparity and are particularly vulnerable to sleep disorders. We present two patients who developed irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder after gender reassignment and hormone replacement therapy. The growing interest in transgender health warrants further evaluation of the effects and frequency of all sleep disorders in this population. Efforts to address sleep disorders should consider assessing sleep disturbance in terms of sleep/wake patterns and schedules.

Citation: Kokash A, Vendrame M. Images: irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder in transgender individuals. J Clin Sleep Med. 2023;19(11):1981-1984.

Keywords: HRT; ISWRD; hormone replacement therapy; irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder; transgender.

MeSH terms

  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Humans
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm* / complications
  • Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm* / therapy
  • Sleep Wake Disorders* / complications
  • Sleep Wake Disorders* / therapy
  • Transgender Persons*