Determination of fungicide residues in soil using QuEChERS coupled with LC-MS/MS, and environmental risk assessment

Environ Monit Assess. 2023 Jul 24;195(8):986. doi: 10.1007/s10661-023-11550-w.


Fungicide residues of soil samples taken from Batak Plain of Çanakkale province of Türkiye were assessed. Fungicide residue analyses were performed with the use of QuEChERS method and LC-MS/MS device. Blank samples were spiked at two different limit of quantification (LOQ) levels for method verification. Overall recovery was identified as 85.69% with an RSD of 12.36% (n=360; SD=10.59). A total of 110 soil samples were taken in November 2020. Present analyses revealed that 59.09% of samples contained fungicide residues at different concentrations. Propiconazole had the highest concentration (1736.06 μg/kg) in one sample, taken from the edge of the field where pesticide wastes were found and 26 fungicides were found at different concentrations in the same sample. Azoxystrobin was encountered in majority of the samples (29 samples). The most frequent fungicides were ordered as; boscalid and tebuconazole (22 samples) > metalaxyl (17 samples) > fluopyram (15 samples). Thirteen triazole fungicides were found in soil samples, mostly at moderately hazardous level (Class II). Risk assessments revealed that hazard levels of fungicides for adults and children were low with a hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) of <1. Despite the safe nature of fungicides in soil samples, the greatest HQ values were identified for propiconazole (326.52E-08 for adults and 2449.00E-08 for children). The sum of hazard quotients for all fungicides was 86.31E-08 8 for adult and 647.35E-08 for children. In terms of soil pollution, it is important for farmers to apply fungicides with low HQ levels.

Keywords: Analytical method verification; Exposure risk evaluation; Fungicide residues; Triazole.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Fungicides, Industrial* / analysis
  • Humans
  • Pesticide Residues* / analysis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Soil / chemistry
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods


  • Fungicides, Industrial
  • Soil
  • Pesticide Residues