The 2023 wearable photoplethysmography roadmap

Physiol Meas. 2023 Nov 29;44(11):111001. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/acead2.


Photoplethysmography is a key sensing technology which is used in wearable devices such as smartwatches and fitness trackers. Currently, photoplethysmography sensors are used to monitor physiological parameters including heart rate and heart rhythm, and to track activities like sleep and exercise. Yet, wearable photoplethysmography has potential to provide much more information on health and wellbeing, which could inform clinical decision making. This Roadmap outlines directions for research and development to realise the full potential of wearable photoplethysmography. Experts discuss key topics within the areas of sensor design, signal processing, clinical applications, and research directions. Their perspectives provide valuable guidance to researchers developing wearable photoplethysmography technology.

Keywords: blood pressure; cardiovascular; fitness; physiological monitoring; sensor; signal processing; smartwatch.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Fitness Trackers
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Photoplethysmography*
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Wearable Electronic Devices*