Influences of continuous and pulse atrazine exposure on intestinal flora and metabolites of Pelophylax nigromaculatus tadpoles

Sci Total Environ. 2023 Nov 25:901:165757. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.165757. Epub 2023 Jul 24.

Abstract

Atrazine, a widely used herbicide, has adverse effects on the growth and metabolism of amphibians. Due to the cyclical application use of the pesticide atrazine in agricultural production, atrazine concentrations in water occur in the form of pulses. However, knowledge of the effects of atrazine pulse exposure on the gut microbiota and metabolism of amphibians is limited. In this study, Pelophylax nigromaculatus tadpoles (Gs 26) were exposed to continuous and pulse atrazine (100 μg/L) for 60 days. The results showed that continuous exposure and pulse exposure had different effects on the diversity of gut microbiota. At the phyla level, pulse exposure significantly increased the relative abundance of Actinobacteria, and decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes compared to continuous exposure. At the genus level, continuous and pulse exposure to atrazine significantly altered the relative abundance of Acetobacterium, Microbacterium, Bacteroides, Eulopiscium and Leuconostoc. Compared to continuous exposure, pulse exposure significantly increased the relative abundance of Microbacterium, and significantly decreased the relative abundance of Acetobacterium and Eplopiscium. In terms of metabolism, pulse exposure significantly increased the relative abundance of creatine, guanine, and inosine and significantly decreased the relative abundance of 3-hydroxysebacic acid, ganoderic acid F, hypoxanthine, and withaperuvin H compared to continuous exposure. Continuous and pulse exposure to atrazine significantly altered the relative abundance of metabolites of the pymidine metabolism, purine metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism and other pathways in the gut of P. nigromaculatus tadpoles. In addition, changes in most metabolites had a significant correlation with changes in gut microorganisms. In conclusion, our study confirmed that pulse exposure to atrazine has a greater effect on the composition of the gut microflora and the metabolism of P. nigromaculatus tadpoles than continuous exposure.

Keywords: Gut; Metabolize; Microorganism; Pelophylax nigromaculatus; Pulse exposure.