Functional extreme learning machine

Front Comput Neurosci. 2023 Jul 11:17:1209372. doi: 10.3389/fncom.2023.1209372. eCollection 2023.


Introduction: Extreme learning machine (ELM) is a training algorithm for single hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN), which converges much faster than traditional methods and yields promising performance. However, the ELM also has some shortcomings, such as structure selection, overfitting and low generalization performance.

Methods: This article a new functional neuron (FN) model is proposed, we takes functional neurons as the basic unit, and uses functional equation solving theory to guide the modeling process of FELM, a new functional extreme learning machine (FELM) model theory is proposed.

Results: The FELM implements learning by adjusting the coefficients of the basis function in neurons. At the same time, a simple, iterative-free and high-precision fast parameter learning algorithm is proposed.

Discussion: The standard data sets UCI and StatLib are selected for regression problems, and compared with the ELM, support vector machine (SVM) and other algorithms, the experimental results show that the FELM achieves better performance.

Keywords: ELM; FELM; FN; functional equation; parameter learning algorithm.

Grants and funding

This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant number 62066005, U21A20464.