Celiac Disease: An Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2023 Dec;123(12):1793-1807.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2023.07.018. Epub 2023 Jul 25.


Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system of genetically susceptible individuals elicits a reaction to gluten causing small intestine damage. If left undiagnosed and untreated, the resulting nutrition malabsorption can lead to anemia, bone disease, growth faltering, or other consequences. The condition is lifelong and lacks a cure; the only treatment is lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). This diet is challenging to follow and adversely influences quality of life; however, it is essential to ensure intestinal recovery and prevent future negative health consequences. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics convened an expert panel complemented by a celiac disease patient advocate to evaluate evidence for six topics, including medical nutrition therapy; the GFD; oat consumption; micronutrients; pro-/prebiotics; and the low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols diet. This publication outlines the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Library methods used to complete the systematic review and guideline development, and summarizes the recommendations and supporting evidence. The guidelines affirm that all individuals with celiac disease should follow a GFD (1C, Imperative) that may include gluten-free oats in adults (2D, Conditional). Children should follow a nutritionally adequate GFD that supports healthy growth and development (Consensus, Imperative) and does not unnecessarily restrict gluten-free oats (Consensus, Conditional). The guidelines indicate nutritional care should include routine nutritional assessment (Consensus, Imperative) and medical nutrition therapy (Consensus, Imperative). At this time, the guidelines do not support a recommendation for the addition of the low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols diet (2C, Conditional); prebiotic or probiotic supplementation (2D, Conditional); or micronutrient supplementation (in the absence of nutritional deficiency) (Consensus, Conditional). The 2021 Celiac Disease Evidence-Based Nutrition Guideline will assist registered dietitian nutritionists in providing appropriate evidence-based medical nutrition therapy to support people with celiac disease in achieving and maintaining nutritional health and avoiding adverse celiac disease consequences throughout their lives.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Avena
  • Celiac Disease* / complications
  • Celiac Disease* / therapy
  • Child
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Dietetics*
  • Disaccharides
  • Humans
  • Monosaccharides
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Quality of Life


  • Disaccharides
  • Monosaccharides