Prenatal diagnosis of a case with complete and uniform tetrasomy 12p by the utility of noninvasive prenatal testing

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2023 Sep;40(9):2233-2240. doi: 10.1007/s10815-023-02896-8. Epub 2023 Jul 28.


Purpose: To report a rare type of Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) diagnosed prenatally by the utility of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT).

Methods: NIPT was performed in the first trimester. Conventional karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were performed on the amniotic samples in the second trimester. Copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) was used for the validation of fetal skin and the placental tissue after pregnancy termination.

Results: NIPT results showed increased signal from chromosome 12p. Subsequent prenatal diagnostic testing by karyotype revealed 47, XY, +i (12p), and CMA displayed four copies of 12p: 12p13.33-12p11.1(173786_34835641) × 4. The CNV-seq results of the fetal skin and the fetal side of placenta showed four copies of 12p13.33-p11 and an estimated chimeric duplication of 34.08 Mb (chimerism ratio: 10%) in 12 p13.33-p11, respectively. However, no abnormality was detected by CNV-seq at the maternal side of placenta.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a positive signal from chromosome 12p on NIPT should raise suspicion for PKS. With the wide application of NIPT, the true positive of incidental finding is expected to increase.

Keywords: Complete; NIPT; PKS; Prenatal diagnosis; Tetrasomy 12p; Uniform.

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Chromosome Disorders* / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics
  • DNA Copy Number Variations / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Noninvasive Prenatal Testing*
  • Placenta
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Tetrasomy

Supplementary concepts

  • Pallister Killian syndrome