The expression levels of PPAR-α/γ and UCP1/2 on the slow coronary flow phenomenon; results from a case-control study

Mol Biol Rep. 2023 Sep;50(9):7527-7533. doi: 10.1007/s11033-023-08668-y. Epub 2023 Jul 27.


Purpose: The slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon is considered a coronary artery disorder. Because of the critical function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in regulating the oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in cardiovascular disease, The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression of the genes for uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 (UCP1 and UCP2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and (PPAR- PPAR-), and PPAR- in SCF patients.

Methods: In this case-control study, coronary angiography examination was used to analyze 35 individuals with SCF and 35 subjects with normal coronary flow (NCF). SCF was diagnosed using the TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count) method. The SCF phenomenon is thought to be the TIMI > 27. In the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of the PPAR-, PPAR-, UCP1, and UCP2 genes were evaluated.

Results: UCP1 and UCP2 expression levels were significantly higher in the SCF group compared to the NCF group (P = 0.034 and P0.001, respectively). The PPAR- and PPAR- levels were found to be significantly lower in the SCF group compared to the NCF group (P = 0.015, P0.001, respectively). According to the results of the logistic regression analysis, high UCP1 and UCP2 levels and low PPAR- and PPAR- levels are each independent predictors of the SCF phenomenon.

Conclusion: This research provided evidence about the potential role of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, UCP1, and UCP2 as biomarkers in SCF. More investigations are suggested to assess the functions of these factors in SCF patients mechanistically.

Keywords: PPAR-α; PPAR-γ; Reactive oxygen species; Slow coronary flow; UCP1; UCP2.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Disease*
  • Coronary Circulation* / physiology
  • Coronary Vessels
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear
  • PPAR gamma / genetics
  • Uncoupling Protein 1 / genetics


  • PPAR gamma
  • UCP1 protein, human
  • Uncoupling Protein 1