Background: The GOLD trial demonstrated that continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) managed with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) improved not only glucose control but also overall well-being and treatment satisfaction. This analysis investigated which factors contributed to improved well-being and treatment satisfaction with CGM.
Methods: The GOLD trial was a randomized crossover trial comparing CGM versus self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) over 16 months. Endpoints included well-being measured by the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) and treatment satisfaction by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) as well as glucose metrics. Multivariable R2-decomposition was used to understand which variables contributed most to treatment satisfaction.
Results: A total of 139 participants were included. Multivariable analyses revealed that increased convenience and flexibility contributed to 60% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50%-69%) of the improvement in treatment satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire change version [DTSQc]) observed with CGM, whereas perceived effects on hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia only contributed to 6% (95% CI = 2%-11%) of improvements. Significant improvements in well-being (WHO-5) by CGM were observed for the following: feeling cheerful (P = .025), calm and relaxed (P = .024), being active (P = .046), and waking up fresh and rested (P = .044). HbA1c reductions and increased time in range (TIR) were associated with increased treatment satisfaction, whereas glycemic variability was not. HbA1c reduction showed also an association with increased well-being and increased TIR with less diabetes-related distress.
Conclusions: While CGM improves glucose control in people with T1D on MDI, increased convenience and flexibility through CGM is of even greater importance for treatment satisfaction and patient well-being. These CGM-mediated effects should be taken into account when considering CGM initiation.
Keywords: CGMS; MDI; SMBG; quality of life; treatment satisfaction; type 1 diabetes.