Loss of the mitochondrial citrate carrier, Slc25a1/CIC disrupts embryogenesis via 2-Hydroxyglutarate

bioRxiv [Preprint]. 2024 Feb 9:2023.07.18.549409. doi: 10.1101/2023.07.18.549409.


Biallelic germline mutations in the SLC25A1 gene lead to combined D/L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D/L-2HGA), a fatal systemic disease uniquely characterized by the accumulation of both enantiomers of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid (2HG). How SLC25A1 deficiency contributes to D/L-2HGA and the role played by 2HG is unclear and no therapy exists. Both enantiomers act as oncometabolites, but their activities in normal tissues remain understudied. Here we show that mice lacking both SLC25A1 alleles exhibit developmental abnormalities that mirror human D/L-2HGA. SLC25A1 deficient cells undergo premature senescence, suggesting that loss of proliferative capacity underlies the pathogenesis of D/L-2HGA. Remarkably, D- and L-2HG directly induce senescence and treatment of zebrafish embryos with the combination of D- and L-2HG phenocopies SLC25A1 loss, leading to developmental abnormalities in an additive fashion relative to either enantiomer alone. Metabolic analyses further demonstrate that cells with dysfunctional SLC25A1 undergo mitochondrial respiratory deficit and remodeling of the metabolism and we propose several strategies to correct these defects. These results reveal for the first time pathogenic and growth suppressive activities of 2HG in the context of SLC25A1 deficiency and suggest that targeting the 2HG pathway may be beneficial for the treatment of D/L-2HGA.

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