Current radiologic and medication administration is systematic and has widespread side effects; however, the administration of microbubbles and nanobubbles (MNBs) has the possibility to provide therapeutic and diagnostic information without the same ramifications. Microbubbles (MBs), for instance, have been used for ultrasound (US) imaging due to their ability to remain in vessels when exposed to ultrasonic waves. On the other hand, nanobubbles (NBs) can be used for further therapeutic benefits, including chronic treatments for osteoporosis and cancer, gene delivery, and treatment for acute conditions, such as brain infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Clinical trials are also being conducted for different administrations and utilizations of MNBs. Overall, there are large horizons for the benefits of MNBs in radiology, general medicine, surgery, and many more medical applications. As such, this review aims to evaluate the most recent publications from 2016 to 2022 to report the current uses and innovations for MNBs.
Keywords: drug delivery systems; gene delivery systems; imaging; microbubbles; nanobubbles.