Cognitive and adaptive behaviors associated with disease severity and genotype in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis II

Mol Genet Metab. 2023 Nov;140(3):107652. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2023.107652. Epub 2023 Jul 13.


Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II) is a rare, X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by pathogenic variants of the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene (IDS) and is characterized by a highly variable disease spectrum. MPS II severity is difficult to predict based on IDS variants alone; while some genotypes are associated with specific phenotypes, the disease course of most genotypes remains unknown. This study aims to refine the genotype-phenotype categorization by combining information from the scientific literature with data from two clinical studies in MPS II.

Methods: Genotype, cognitive, and behavioral data from 88 patients in two clinical studies (NCT01822184, NCT02055118) in MPS II were analyzed post hoc in combination with published information on IDS variants from the biomedical literature through a semi-automated multi-stage review process. The Differential Ability Scales, second edition (DAS-II) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales™, second edition (VABS-II) were used to measure cognitive function and adaptive behavior.

Results: The most common category of IDS variant was missense (47/88, 53.4% of total variants). The mean (standard deviation [SD]) baseline DAS-II General Conceptual Ability (GCA) and VABS-II Adaptive Behavior Composite (ABC) scores were 74.0 (16.4) and 82.6 (14.7), respectively. All identified IDS complete deletions/large rearrangements (n = 7) and large deletions (n = 1) were associated with a published 'severe' or 'predicted severe' progressive neuronopathic phenotype, characterized by central nervous system involvement. In categories comprising more than one participant, mean baseline DAS-II GCA scores (SD) were lowest among individuals with complete deletions/large rearrangements 64.0 (9.1, n = 4) and highest among those with splice site variants 83.8 (14.2, n = 4). Mean baseline VABS-II ABC scores (SD) were lowest among patients with unclassifiable variants 79.3 (4.9, n = 3) and highest among those with a splice site variant 87.2 (16.1, n = 5), in variant categories with more than one participant.

Conclusions: Most patients in the studies had an MPS II phenotype categorized as 'severe' or 'predicted severe' according to classifications, as reported in the literature. Patients with IDS complete deletion/large rearrangement variants had lower mean DAS-II GCA scores than those with other variants, as well as low VABS-II ABC, confirming an association with the early progressive 'severe' (neuronopathic) disease. These data provide a starting point to improve the classification of MPS II phenotypes and the characterization of the genotype-phenotype relationship.

Keywords: Cognitive impairment; Genotype; MPS II; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Neuronopathic; Phenotype.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Iduronate Sulfatase* / genetics
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis II* / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Patient Acuity


  • Iduronate Sulfatase