Trichosporon asahii Infective Endocarditis of Prosthetic Valve: A Case Report and Literature Review

Antibiotics (Basel). 2023 Jul 13;12(7):1181. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics12071181.


Trichosporon spp. endocarditis is a severe and hard-to-treat infection. Immunosuppressed subjects and carriers of prosthetic valves or intracardiac devices are at risk. This article presents the case of an immunocompetent 74-year-old man affected by endocarditis of the prosthetic aortic valve. After Bentall surgery, cultures of the removed valve demonstrated Trichosporon ashaii as the etiological agent. The patient was treated with amphotericin B at first and subsequently with fluconazole. Given the fragility of the patient and the aggressiveness of the pathogen, life-long prophylactic therapy with fluconazole was prescribed. After 5 years follow-up, no drug-related toxicities were reported and the patient never showed any signs of recurrence. The review of the literature illustrates that Trichosporon spp. endocarditis may present even many years after heart surgery, and it is often associated with massive valve vegetations, severe embolic complications, and unfavorable outcome. Due to the absence of international guidelines, there is no unanimous therapeutic approach, but amphotericin B and azoles are usually prescribed. Additionally, a prompt surgical intervention seems to be of paramount importance. When dealing with a life-threatening disease, such as mycotic endocarditis of prosthetic valves, it is essential to consider and treat even rare etiological agents such as Trichosporon spp.

Keywords: Trichosporon; asahii; azoles; endocarditis; prosthetic valve.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.