A Cross-Sectional Study of the Dermatological Manifestations of Patients with Fabry Disease and the Assessment of Angiokeratomas with Multimodal Imaging

Diagnostics (Basel). 2023 Jul 14;13(14):2368. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics13142368.


Fabry disease (FD) is a multisystemic X-linked lysosomal storage disease that presents with angiokeratomas (AKs). Our objective was to investigate the clinical and morphologic features of AKs and to present two experimental techniques, multispectral imaging (MSI) and non-linear microscopy (NLM). A thorough dermatological examination was carried out in our 26 FD patients and dermoscopic images (n = 136) were evaluated for specific structures. MSI was used for the evaluation of AKs in seven patients. NLM was carried out to obtain histology samples of two AKs and two hemangiomas. Although AKs were the most common manifestation, the majority of patients presented an atypical distribution and appearance, which could cause a diagnostic challenge. Dermoscopy revealed lacunae (65%) and dotted vessels (56%) as the most common structures, with a whitish veil present in only 25%. Autofluorescence (405 nm) and diffuse reflectance (526 nm) images showed the underlying vasculature more prominently compared to dermoscopy. Using NLM, AKs and hemangiomas could be distinguished based on morphologic features. The clinical heterogeneity of FD can result in a diagnostic delay. Although AKs are often the first sign of FD, their presentation is diverse. A thorough dermatological examination and the evaluation of other cutaneous signs are essential for the early diagnosis of FD.

Keywords: Fabry disease; angiokeratoma; dermoscopy; multispectral imaging; non-linear microscopy.