Parent Willingness to Pay for School Feeding Programs in Junior High Schools in Malang Regency, Indonesia

Nutrients. 2023 Jul 19;15(14):3212. doi: 10.3390/nu15143212.


In Indonesia, school feeding programs have not been established nationally due to the government's limited budget. To examine the possibility of copayment for school feeding programs, parents' intentions to use the school feeding programs and their willingness to pay (WTP) for these programs should be considered. We conducted an online questionnaire survey among the parents of junior high school students in all five public junior high schools in the Kepanjen District of Malang Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia. We used the contingent valuation method to elicit parents' WTP for school feeding and calculated the price elasticity of school feeding. Factors associated with the WTP were examined using logistic regression analysis. Of the 940 participants, 90% intended to use school feeding programs, and 30% were willing to pay Rp 15,000 (USD 1.05) or higher per meal. Of the 944 students (participants' children), all but two students consumed meals or snacks at school, with 74% consuming foods three or more times daily. Higher WTP for school feeding was associated with frequent food consumption at school, higher income, and a better perception of meals at school. In contrast, lower WTP was associated with more household members. Most parents intended to use school feeding programs with certain WTP irrespective of the price of school feeding. Therefore, school feeding in Indonesia might be expanded through copayment.

Keywords: Indonesia; intention to use; junior high school; school feeding program; school meal; willingness to pay.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Income*
  • Indonesia
  • Parents
  • Schools*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires