Two-photon manipulation of neuronal activity and behavior in Hydra vulgaris

STAR Protoc. 2023 Jul 28;4(3):102453. doi: 10.1016/j.xpro.2023.102453. Online ahead of print.


The introduction of calcium imaging has rendered cnidarians, such as Hydra vulgaris, valuable model organisms for investigating neuronal activity and behavior. Here, we present a comprehensive protocol to image and manipulate neuronal activity and behavior of Hydra. We describe steps for wide-field imaging and two-photon simulation and ablation of neurons. We then detail imaging behavior and post-ablation analysis. We address challenges that may arise during the preparation and execution of the experiments.

Keywords: Behavior; Evolutionary Biology; Neuroscience.