Designing lisuride intranasal nanocarrier system for reduction of oxidative damage with enhanced dopamine level in brain for Parkinsonism

J Psychiatr Res. 2023 Sep:165:205-218. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2023.07.030. Epub 2023 Jul 21.


In the present study, nanoemulsion (NE) loaded with lisuride were formulated for delivering drug to brain via intranasal route. Dopamine levels, pharmacokinetic, and antioxidant activity were estimated. Antioxidant effect of lisuride NE was assessed in-vivo using oxidative stress models revealing symptoms like those of Parkinson's disease. Intranasally administered lisuride NE-treated group revealed a greater number of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) as compared to the intravenously administered lisuride suspension in haloperidol rat model. Additionally, it was observed that lisuride NE can decrease dopamine loss. When lisuride NE was administered intranasally resulted in considerably higher dopamine concentrations (17.48 ± 0.05 ng/mL) in comparison to rats receiving haloperidol (7.28 ± 0.02 ng/mL). From study, it is suggested that NE is a possible strategy to deliver lisuride intranasally to lower free radical damage and prevent the biochemical alterations associated with Parkinson's disease.

Keywords: Intranasal drug delivery; Lisuride; Nanoemulsion; Parkinson's disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Brain
  • Dopamine
  • Haloperidol / pharmacology
  • Haloperidol / therapeutic use
  • Lisuride* / pharmacology
  • Lisuride* / therapeutic use
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Parkinson Disease* / drug therapy
  • Rats


  • Lisuride
  • Dopamine
  • Haloperidol
  • Antioxidants