Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for the Re-Emerging Human Monkeypox Virus

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2023 Aug 28;33(8):981-991. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2306.06033. Epub 2023 Jul 25.


Monkeypox (Mpox) virus, a member of the Poxviridae family, causes a severe illness similar to smallpox, which is characterized by symptoms such as high fever, rash, and pustules. Human-to-human transmission cases have been reported but remained low since the first recorded case of human infection occurred in the Congo in 1970. Recently, Mpox has re-emerged, leading to an alarming surge in infections worldwide since 2022, originating in the United Kingdom. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the '2022-23 Mpox outbreak'. Currently, no specific therapy or vaccine is available for Mpox. Therefore, patients infected with Mpox are treated using conventional therapies developed for smallpox. However, the vaccines developed for smallpox have demonstrated only partial efficacy against Mpox, allowing viral transmission among humans. In this review, we discuss the current epidemiology of the ongoing Mpox outbreak and provide an update on the progress made in diagnosis, treatment, and development of vaccines for Mpox.

Keywords: Human monkeypox virus; diagnosis; epidemiology; therapeutics; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Monkeypox virus
  • Mpox (monkeypox)* / diagnosis
  • Mpox (monkeypox)* / epidemiology
  • Mpox (monkeypox)* / prevention & control
  • Smallpox*
  • Vaccines*


  • Vaccines