Aficamten is a novel cardiac myosin inhibitor that has demonstrated its ability to safely lower left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradients and improve heart failure symptoms in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Based on the REDWOOD-HCM open label extension (OLE) study, participants receiving aficamten had significantly reduced resting and Valsalva LVOT gradient within 2 weeks after initiating treatment, with ongoing improvements over 24 weeks, and recent evidence suggests effects can sustain up to 48 weeks. While beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and disopyramide have shown some benefits in managing HCM, they have limited direct impact on the underlying disease process in patients with obstructive HCM. Aficamten achieves its therapeutic effect by reducing hypercontractility and improving diastolic function in obstructive HCM. Mavacamten was the first cardiac myosin inhibitor approved for symptomatic obstructive HCM. However, aficamten has a shorter human half-life (t1/2) and fewer drug-drug interactions, making it a preferable treatment option. This review evaluates the long-term clinical value and safety of aficamten in patients with obstructive HCM based on available data from completed and ongoing clinical trials. Additionally, the molecular basis of sarcomere-targeted therapy in reducing LVOT gradients is explored, and its potential in managing obstructive HCM is discussed.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.