Outcome of rare primary malignant bone sarcoma treated with multimodal therapy: Results from the EUROpean Bone Over 40 Sarcoma Study (EURO-B.O.S.S.)

Cancer. 2023 Nov 15;129(22):3564-3573. doi: 10.1002/cncr.34964. Epub 2023 Aug 2.


Background: Rare primary malignant bone sarcomas (RPMBS) account for 5%-10% of primary high-grade bone tumors and represent a major treatment challenge. The outcome of patients with RPMBS enrolled in the EUROpean Bone Over 40 Sarcoma Study (EURO-B.O.S.S) is presented.

Methods: Inclusion criteria were as follows: age from 41 to 65 years and a diagnosis of high-grade spindle cell, pleomorphic, or vascular RPMBS. The chemotherapy regimen included doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 , ifosfamide 9 g/m2 , and cisplatin 90 mg/m2 ; postoperative methotrexate 8 g/m2 was added in case of a poor histologic response. Version 2.0 of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and univariate Cox regression models were used.

Results: In total, 113 patients were evaluable for analysis. The median patient age was 52 years (range, 40-66 years), and 67 patients were men. Eighty-eight tumors were categorized as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS), 20 were categorized as leiomyosarcomas, three were categorized as fibrosarcomas, and two were categorized as angiosarcomas. Eighty-three of 113 tumors were located in the extremities. Ninety-five of 113 patients presented with no evidence of metastases. After a median follow-up of 6.8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 3.5-9.8 years), the 5-year overall survival rate for patients with localized disease was 68.4% (IQR, 56.9%-77.5%), and it was 71.7% (IQR, 58.1%-81.6%) for patients with UPS and 54.9% (IQR, 29.5%-74.5%) for patients with leiomyosarcoma. Grade III-IV hematologic toxicity was reported in 81% patients; 23% had grade II-III neurotoxicity, and 37.5% had grade I-II nephrotoxicity. Five-year overall survival was significantly better for patients with localized disease, for patients who obtained surgical complete remission, and when the primary tumor was located in the extremities.

Conclusions: The survival of patients who had RPMBS in the current series was similar to that of age-matched patients who had high-grade osteosarcoma treated according to the same protocol. An osteosarcoma-like chemotherapy may be proposed in patients who have RPMBS.

Keywords: angiosarcoma; bone sarcoma; chemotherapy; fibrosarcoma; leiomyosarcoma; multimodality treatment; nonosteosarcoma malignant bone tumors; rare primary malignant bone sarcoma (RPMBS); ultra-rare sarcoma; undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Bone Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Doxorubicin
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ifosfamide
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteosarcoma* / drug therapy
  • Sarcoma* / pathology


  • Doxorubicin
  • Ifosfamide