COVID-19 Outcomes Among People With HIV and COVID-19 in New York City

J Infect Dis. 2023 Nov 28;228(11):1571-1582. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiad311.


Background: Literature on the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related outcomes remains mixed. Few studies have evaluated COVID-19 outcomes by HIV status using population-based data.

Methods: Using data from New York City COVID-19 surveillance and HIV surveillance systems prior to the widespread availability of COVID-19 vaccines, we conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality by HIV status among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnoses from 29 February to 17 October 2020.

Results: Risk of hospitalization and death among people with HIV (PWH) withCOVID-19 were both nearly 30% higher compared with people without HIV. In crude models, incidence of adverse COVID-19 outcomes among PWH compared to people without HIV was elevated in certain groups, including women, and black, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, and multiracial people. CD4 cell count at SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and presence of an underlying, non-HIV-related condition were independently and strongly associated with risk for COVID-19 hospitalization and death among PWH.

Conclusions: New Yorkers with HIV experienced elevated risk for poor COVID-19 outcomes compared to those without HIV during 2020. PWH, particularly those with low CD4 counts or underlying conditions, should be an ongoing focus for COVID-19 vaccination and rigorous identification and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections to prevent adverse outcomes.

Keywords: COVID-19; HIV; hospitalization; mortality; population-level surveillance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Testing
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • New York City / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • COVID-19 Vaccines