Fulminant Anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-Associated Cerebral Cortical Encephalitis: Case Series of a Severe Pediatric Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disease Phenotype

Pediatr Neurol. 2023 Oct:147:36-43. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2023.07.002. Epub 2023 Jul 11.


Background: We describe a cohort of children with severe myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG-associated cerebral cortical encephalitis (CCE), manifesting with bilateral cortical cytotoxic edema and critical neurological illness.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our pediatric MOG antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) database and identified patients with specific radiographic pattern of bilateral, multifocal cortical cytotoxic lesions. We collected demographic, clinical, and outcomes data from these patients and compared select variables with radiographically distinct cerebral MOGAD syndromes (case-control analysis). We assessed the correlation of quantitative clinical variables with severity/outcomes measures using simple linear regression.

Results: Sixty-five of 88 total MOGAD cases had cerebral disease, and six of 88 met inclusion criteria for fulminant CCE (f-CCE). Age range was 2 to 7 years; five of six were male. Six of six were critically ill with severe encephalopathy and seizures, two of six required barbiturate coma, and two of six required invasive intracranial pressure monitoring. Six of six required treatment escalation beyond steroids. Four of six had favorable outcome; two of six had moderate-severe disability. Compared with other cerebral MOGAD cases (n = 59), children with f-CCE were more likely to have critical illness and poor neurological outcomes scores. Neurofilament light chain and treatment latency positively correlated with intensive care unit length of stay and outcomes scores; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio did not.

Conclusions: Pediatric CCE with bilateral cytotoxicity is associated with more fulminant disease and worse outcomes than other cerebral MOGAD syndromes.

Keywords: Encephalitis; MOG; MOGAD; Pediatric.

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies
  • Brain Diseases*
  • Encephalitis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein
  • Oligodendroglia
  • Phenotype
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Syndrome


  • Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein
  • Autoantibodies