We have isolated the bovine and human genes for Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), a testicular glycoprotein that causes regression of the Müllerian duct during development of the male embryo. The mRNA sequence of bovine MIS, determined from an analysis of cDNA and genomic clones, codes for a protein of 575 amino acids containing a 24 amino acid leader peptide. The human gene has five exons that code for a protein of 560 amino acids. A comparison of the bovine and human MIS proteins reveals a highly conserved C-terminal domain that shows marked homology with human transforming growth factor-beta and the beta chain of porcine inhibin. Animal cells transfected with the human gene secrete biologically active MIS, which causes regression of the rat Müllerian duct in vitro.