A Nature-Inspired Versatile Bio-Adhesive

Adv Healthc Mater. 2023 Nov;12(29):e2301560. doi: 10.1002/adhm.202301560. Epub 2023 Aug 13.


The application of most hydrogel bio-adhesives is greatly limited due to their high swelling, low underwater adhesion, and single function. Herein, a spatial multi-level physical-chemical and bio-inspired in-situ bonding strategy is proposed, to develop a multifunctional hydrogel bio-glue using polyglutamic acid (PGA), tyramine hydrochloride (TYR), and tannic acid (TA) as precursors and 4-(4,6-dimethoxytriazine-2-yl) -4-methylmorpholine hydrochloride(DMTMM) as condensation agent, which is used for tissue adhesion, hemostasis and repair. By introducing TYR and TA into the PGA chain, it is demonstrated that not only can the strong adhesion of bio-glue to the surface of various fresh tissues and wet materials be realized through the synergistic effect of spatial multi-level physical and chemical bonding, but also this glue can be endowed with the functions of anti-oxidation and hemostasis. The excellent performance of such bio-glue in the repair of the wound, liver, and cartilage is achieved, showing a great potential in clinical application for such bio-glue. This study will open up a brand-new avenue for the development of multifunctional hydrogel biological adhesive.

Keywords: hemostasis; multifunctional biological adhesives; phenolic compounds; polyglutamic acid; tissue repairs.

MeSH terms

  • Adhesives*
  • Hemostasis
  • Humans
  • Hydrogels
  • Tannins
  • Tissue Adhesions
  • Tissue Adhesives*


  • Adhesives
  • Tissue Adhesives
  • Hydrogels
  • Tannins